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Nicolas Copernicus - Polish astronomer:

Nicolas Copernicus

1473 - Born in Torun, Poland
1483 -
His father dies
1530 -
Completed his theory book
1543 - Published his  book "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"
1543 -
Copernicus dies in Frombork

Nicholas Copernicus, proved that the sun was the center of the solar system and the sun, earth and the moon were all shaped like round balls.

Who was
Nicolas Copernicus?

Mikolaj Kopernik, well known by his Latin name Nicholas Copernicus was born in Torun, Poland in 1473. His father Niklas Koppernigk, was a merchant and baker from Cracow, who migrated to Torun not later than 1458. He prospered there and was appointed magistrate for life. He married Barbara Watzenrode, daughter of a wealthy Torun merchant. 
His parents died when he was twelve, and he was entrusted to his uncle Lukas Watzenrode. 

Through his uncle, Lukas Watzenrode (1447-1512), who later became the bishop of Varmia (Ermland), was elected a canon of the cathedral chapter of Frombork (Frauenburg). In 1491-1495 his uncle enabled him to enter the University of Krakow. It was then famous for its mathematics, philosophy, and astronomy curriculum.

Copernicus attended St. John's School in Torun and studied canon law at the University of Krakow from 1491 to 1495. Than in 1496 he begins Law studies in the University of Bologna to study both canon and civil law. There, he lodged with and worked as an assistant to Domenico Maria the Ferrarese of Novara from 1454 to 1504. Later he worked as an professor of mathematics and astrology and also the official compiler of prognostications for the university. After briefly returning to Frombork, Copernicus studied medicine at the University of Padua during years 1501-1503, where received a license to practice medicine. Then moved on to the University of Ferrara where in 1503 he obtained a doctorate in Canon Law. He then returned to Varmia, where he stayed for the rest of his life.  

Having been elected a canon of Frauenberg Cathedral, he returned home, assisted his uncle until the uncle's death, and then opened a free clinic for the poor.
He acted as medical advisor and secretary to his uncle at Heilsberg, and was later heavily involved with the administrative tasks in the diocese of Frombork. in 1510-1512 Copernicus draws up a map of Warmia and the western borders of Royal Prussia for the Poznan convention of the King’s Council. Copernicus continues to hold both the office of Chancellor as well as Visitor in the Chapter House. 
In year 1511  he was appointed Chief Bursar in the Chapter.

In 1514, the Lateran Council sought Copernicus's opinion on calendar reform. 
In 1514-1516 Frombork Chapter relieves Copernicus of his administrative duties. 
Copernicus purchased a house convenient for his astronomical observations; he has an observation platform built in the back for his astronomical instruments.

During his study in astronomy, he made a major discovery that changed the way people were  thinking about the universe. He discovered the orbit of the sun and the planets. 

In 1530 Copernicus summed up all of his theories, ideas, and observations in his book De Revolutionibus orbium coelestium  ("On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"), which set forth his revolutionary theory that the earth revolved around the sun, instead of the sun revolving around the earth. 

this year, nearly everyone thought that the earth was flat, that wheels drove the sun, stars and the moon. People also thought that the earth was the center of all stars which were stuck in some giant awning that covered the earth. But astronomer, Nicholas Copernicus, proved that the sun was the center of the solar system and the sun, earth and the moon were all shaped like round balls.
This manuscript was printed and published in 1543, which was the year of Copernicus's death.

In 1543, Nicolas Copernicus suddenly became sick with a brain hemorrhage. He died on May 21st that year, and received a copy of his book on his deathbed.

The citizens of Torun are proud of their native son, Mikolaj Kopernik and erected a beautiful monument in front of the city hall. 


Old painting of astronomer from year 1894


Polish banknote 1000 zlotych 
printed in


Polish banknote 1000 zlotych 
printed in


500th Birth, on Dahomey stamp


Few German's FDC's

Copernicus Copernicus

Nicolas Copernicus - Polish Astronomer! He was the first person in history to create a complete and general system, combining mathematics, physics, and cosmology.

Source: js-Polskiinternet.com



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